NEMESIS, Neuroinflammation & Multiple Sclerosis


Our emerging research team is integrated within the Lille Neuroscience & Cognition research institute located on the University Hospital campus in Lille.

The laboratory provides a mixture of fundamental scientists and clinical scientists. This multi-disciplinarity enriches training of MSc/PhD students and post-doctoral researchers that are welcomed in our environment.

Our field of interest pertains to inflammatory diseases of the brain and spinal cord which can be particularly harmful due to the poor regenerative capacity of the central nervous system (CNS). Specialised in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Neuromyelitis spectrum disorder (NMOSD) the perimeter of our laboratory includes innovating patient-care via clinical trials and biomarker research, as well as fundamental research aimed at unravelling the pathophysiology of autoimmune demyelination.

Our ongoing translational research addresses the impact of immune-senescence, B cells, microglia and post-translational modifications as novel mediators of neuroinflammation.  We actively contribute to clinical trials targeting these novel therapeutic cues in order to advance the clinical management of MS.



Principal investigators

Dr. Lennart Mars, PhD.
Head of the emerging NEMESIS team
Principal investigator at INSERM, Neuroimmunologist.
University of Lille, Faculty of Medicine.

Pr. Hélène Zéphir, PU-PH, MD, PhD.
Principal Investigator, Neurologist.
University of Lille, Faculty of Medicine.

Pr. Patrick Vermersch, PU-PH, MD, PhD.
Principal Investigator, Neurologist.
University of Lille, Faculty of Medicine.
Hospital activities: Neurologist - Neuropathologist.

Staff Engineers

Dr. Nathalie Journiac, PhD
Research Engineer  (Lille University)

Dr. Edmone Dewaeles, PhD
Study Engineer (Lille University)
Molecular Biologist

Post Doctoral Researchers

Shin-Yi YU, Post Doc

PhD Students

Dr. Laure Deramoudt, PharmD,
PhD student

Dr Bruno Lemarchant, MD, MSc/PhD Student
Gatien Durand, Pharmacy Intern, MSc/PhD Student
Xavier Biardeau, Med, PhD student
Marion Prono, PharmD, PhD Student


Dr Florent Salvador, PhD
Dr Mathilde Bas, PharmD, PhD
Scientist, Merck Life Science

The central nervous system (CNS) is classically considered an immune privileged environment in which immunogens can persist in the parenchyma without eliciting an adaptive immune response. Despite this feature, the CNS is not immune-deprived, as local inflammatory responses are mounted against microbial infections and subside after pathogen clearance. This indicates that the CNS can intrinsically control immune activity and can harness itself against collateral immune-mediated tissue damage. We study the dysregulation of these neuroimmune interactions within the context of Multiple Sclerosis and Devics disease with the following three objectives:

Antibodies and Fc-Glycosylation in autoimmune neuroinflammation.

Devic’s disease is an aetiologically heterogeneous inflammatory disease that affects the optic nerve and spinal cord. Unlike Multiple Sclerosis, a focussed neural autoantibody response is pivotal in driving the pathogenic demise of CNS glial cells and neurons. The specificity of the humoral response has allowed the identification of 2 subsets with distinct pathophysiology. Antibodies directed against aquaporin-4 (AQP-4); a water channel protein expressed on the cell surface of CNS astrocytes underly the Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Demyelination progresses from an autoimmune astrocytopathy which can be treated by neutralisation the humoral response by eliminating B cells, or neutralising complement or IL-6. A second subset is characterised by antibodies targeting Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG), a minor component of CNS myelin that is synthesised by oligodendrocytes. Clinically MOGAD manifests as optic neuritis, but may involve myelitis or, in children, an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and autoimmune encephalitis.

Antibodies (Abs) exert their function by binding to distinct Fc receptors and complement. The affinity of these interactions is traditionally ascribed to the Ab isotype. At least for the IgGs this view is evolving. N-linked glycans are increasingly proposed to influence binding to the classical Fc-gamma receptors (FcγR) and allow for binding to non-classical type II receptors. The impact of this novel Fc functionality on the humoral response in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system is not known. We are defining these novel traits of the humoral response for MS, NMOSD and MOGAD using various translational approaches.

Antibody-independent pathogenicity of B cells

Undoubtedly an autoimmune disease, MS mobilises the full breath of the innate and adaptive immune response. Relapsing-remitting disease is driven by recurrent immune cell infiltration causing focal demyelinating lesions and axonal scarring. More pronounced neurodegeneration ensues in progressive MS during which the inflammatory response structures itself within the central nervous system. This compartmentalised CNS immune response persists without waves of immune infiltration in the presence of an intact blood brain barrier.  Neuroinflammation in the parenchyma is complemented with appearance of ectopic lymphoid follicles (ELF) within the meninges that drives cortical demyelination and neuronal demise. This complexity of the inflammatory response in MS goes beyond autoreactivity, implicating immune dysregulation caused by genetic predisposition, progressive immune-senescence and aging, and at the latest stages immune independent neurodegeneration. We are working on a novel B cell subset that expands in the elderly (>65) and contributes to CD8 immune senescence.

Treatment innovation and clinical management

The last decade has seen remarkable progress in the comprehension and clinical management of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A similar evolution is expected for NMOSD and MOGAD given the progress in understanding their underlying pathophysiology. We contribute to treatment innovation by participating in clinical trials aimed at improving immunomodulatory treatments, promote tissue healing by neuroprotective or remyelination strategies, or silence the innate immune response within the CNS. We explore the mechanisms of action of MS biotherapies, invest in biomarker development and develop novel strategies based on our fundamental research.


2019    Highly sialylated autoantibodies and uses thereof. INSERM / LFB Biotechnologies. Inventors : Mars LT, Monnet C. WO 2019/202153 A1 / FR3080376A1.

2014    Compounds, pharmaceutical composition and their use in treating neurodegenerative diseases. Melnyk P, Vermersch P, Carato P, Vanteghem-Oxombre B, Zephir H, Donnier-Maréchal M. Brevet européen déposé le 16 juin 2014 sous le n° EP14305919.4.

Selected publications


Cell Metabolic Alterations due to Mcph1 Mutation in Microcephaly.
Journiac N, Gilabert-Juan J, Cipriani S, Benit P, Liu X, Jacquier S, Faivre V, Delahaye-Duriez A, Csaba Z, Hourcade T, Melinte E, Lebon S, Violle-Poirsier C, Oury JF, Adle-Biassette H, Wang ZQ, Mani S, Rustin P, Gressens P, Nardelli J.
Cell Rep. 2020 Apr 14;31(2):107506. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.03.070.

Efficacy of cladribine tablets in high disease activity patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis: Post hoc analysis of subgroups with and without prior disease-modifying drug treatment.
Vermersch P, Galazka A, Dangond F, Damian D, Wong SL, Jack D, Harty G.
Curr Med Res Opin. 2020 Dec 17:1. doi: 10.1080/03007995.2020.1865888.

Siponimod and cognition in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: EXPAND secondary analyses.
Benedict RHB, Tomic D, Cree BA, Fox R, Giovannoni G, Bar-Or A, Gold R, Vermersch P, Pohlmann H, Wright I, Karlsson G, Dahlke F, Wolf C, Kappos L.
Neurology. 2020 Dec 16:10.1212/WNL.0000000000011275. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000011275.

An analysis of first-line disease-modifying therapies in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis using the French nationwide health claims database from 2014-2017.
Vermersch P, Suchet L, Colamarino R, Laurendeau C, Detournay B.
Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020 Nov;46:102521. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2020.102521.

Clinical Features and Risk of Relapse in Children and Adults with Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody-Associated Disease.
Cobo-Calvo A, Ruiz A, Rollot F, Arrambide G, Deschamps R, Maillart E, Papeix C, Audoin B, Lépine AF, Maurey H, Zephir H, Biotti D, Ciron J, Durand-Dubief F, Collongues N, Ayrignac X, Labauge P, Meyer P, Thouvenot E, Bourre B, Montcuquet A, Cohen M, Horello P, Tintoré M, De Seze J, Vukusic S, Deiva K, Marignier R; NOMADMUS, KidBioSEP, and OFSEP study groups.
Ann Neurol. 2021 Jan;89(1):30-41. doi: 10.1002/ana.25909.

Optical coherence tomography for detection of asymptomatic optic nerve lesions in clinically isolated syndrome.
Outteryck O, Lopes R, Drumez É, Labreuche J, Lannoy J, Hadhoum N, Boucher J, Vermersch P, Zedet M, Pruvo JP, Zéphir H, Leclerc X.
Neurology. 2020 Aug 11;95(6):e733-e744. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000009832.

Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Multiple Sclerosis.
Louapre C, Collongues N, Stankoff B, Giannesini C, Papeix C, Bensa C, Deschamps R, Créange A, Wahab A, Pelletier J, Heinzlef O, Labauge P, Guilloton L, Ahle G, Goudot M, Bigaut K, Laplaud DA, Vukusic S, Lubetzki C, De Sèze J; Covisep investigators, Derouiche F, Tourbah A, Mathey G, Théaudin M, Sellal F, Dugay MH, Zéphir H, Vermersch P, Durand-Dubief F, Françoise R, Androdias- Condemine G, Pique J, Codjia P, Tilikete C, Marcaud V, Lebrun-Frenay C, Cohen M, Ungureanu A, Maillart E, Beigneux Y, Roux T, Corvol JC, Bordet A, Mathieu Y, Le Breton F, Boulos DD, Gout O, Guéguen A, Moulignier A, Boudot M, Chardain A, Coulette S, Manchon E, Ayache SS, Moreau T, Garcia PY, Kumaran D, Castelnovo G, Thouvenot E, Taithe F, Poupart J, Kwiatkowski A, Defer G, Derache N, Branger P, Biotti D, Ciron J, Clerc C, Vaillant M, Magy L, Montcuquet A, Kerschen P, Coustans M, Guennoc AM, Brochet B, Ouallet JC, Ruet A, Dulau C, Wiertlewski S, Berger E, Buch D, Bourre B, Pallix Guiot M, Maurousset A, Audoin B, Rico A, Maarouf A, Edan G, Papassin J, Videt D.
JAMA Neurol. 2020 Sep 1;77(9):1079-1088. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.2581.

Teriflunomide vs injectable disease modifying therapies for relapsing forms of MS.
Vermersch P, Oh J, Cascione M, Oreja-Guevara C, Gobbi C, Travis LH, Myhr KM, Coyle PK.
Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020 Aug;43:102158. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2020.102158.

Asymptomatic optic nerve lesions: An underestimated cause of silent retinal atrophy in MS.
Davion JB, Lopes R, Drumez É, Labreuche J, Hadhoum N, Lannoy J, Vermersch P, Pruvo JP, Leclerc X, Zéphir H, Outteryck O.
Neurology. 2020 Jun 9;94(23):e2468-e2478. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000009504.

Double-blind, randomized controlled trial of therapeutic plasma exchanges vs sham exchanges in moderate-to-severe relapses of multiple sclerosis.
Brochet B, Deloire M, Germain C, Ouallet JC, Wittkop L, Dulau C, Perez P, Thevenot F, De Sèze J, Zéphir H, Vermersch P, Pittion S, Debouverie M, Laplaud DA, Clavelou P, Ruet A.
J Clin Apher. 2020 Aug;35(4):281-289. doi: 10.1002/jca.21788.

Evaluation of efficacy and tolerability of first-line therapies in NMOSD.
Poupart J, Giovannelli J, Deschamps R, Audoin B, Ciron J, Maillart E, Papeix C, Collongues N, Bourre B, Cohen M, Wiertlewski S, Outteryck O, Laplaud D, Vukusic S, Marignier R, Zephir H; NOMADMUS study group.
Neurology. 2020 Apr 14;94(15):e1645-e1656. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000009245.


Fc Sialylation Prolongs Serum Half-Life of Therapeutic Antibodies.
Bas M, Terrier A, Jacque E, Dehenne A, Pochet-Béghin V, Beghin C, Dezetter AS, Dupont G, Engrand A, Beaufils B, Mondon P, Fournier N, de Romeuf C, Jorieux S, Fontayne A, Mars LT. Monnet C. 
 J Immunol. 2019 Mar 1;202(5):1582-1594. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1800896.

The 5-year Tysabri global observational program in safety (TYGRIS) study confirms the long-term safety profile of natalizumab treatment in multiple sclerosis.
Foley J, Carrillo-Infante C, Smith J, Evans K, Ho PR, Lee L, Kasliwal R, Stangel M, Vermersch P, Hutchinson M, Marinelli F, Smirnakis K; TYGRIS investigators.
Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2019 Nov 21;39:101863. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2019.101863.

Efficacy of alemtuzumab in relapsing- remitting MS patients who received additional courses after the initial two courses: Pooled analysis of the CARE-MS, extension, and TOPAZ studies.
Comi G, Alroughani R, Boster AL, Bass AD, Berkovich R, Fernández Ó, Kim HJ, Limmroth V, Lycke J, Macdonell RA, Sharrack B, Singer BA, Vermersch P, Wiendl H, Ziemssen T, Jacobs A, Daizadeh N, Rodriguez CE, Traboulsee A; CARE-MS I, CARE-MS II, CAMMS03409, and TOPAZ Investigators.
Mult Scler. 2020 Dec;26(14):1866-1876. doi: 10.1177/1352458519888610.

Efficacy of alemtuzumab over 6 years in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients who relapsed between courses 1 and 2: Post hoc analysis of the CARE-MS studies.
Van Wijmeersch B, Singer BA, Boster A, Broadley S, Fernández Ó, Freedman MS, Izquierdo G, Lycke J, Pozzilli C, Sharrack B, Steingo B, Wiendl H, Wray S, Ziemssen T, Chung L, Margolin DH, Thangavelu K, Vermersch P.
Mult Scler. 2020 Nov;26(13):1719-1728. doi: 10.1177/1352458519881759.

Expert opinion: Criteria for second- line treatment failure in patients with multiple sclerosis.
Vermersch P, De Sèze J, Clavelou P, Durand-Dubief F, Maillart E, Mekies C, Moreau T, Papeix C, Tourbah A, Labauge P.
Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2019 Nov;36:101406. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2019.101406.

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Incidence and Risk Stratification Among Natalizumab Users in France.
Vukusic S, Rollot F, Casey R, Pique J, Marignier R, Mathey G, Edan G, Brassat D, Ruet A, De Sèze J, Maillart E, Zéphir H, Labauge P, Derache N, Lebrun-Frenay C, Moreau T, Wiertlewski S, Berger E, Moisset X, Rico-Lamy A, Stankoff B, Bensa C, Thouvenot E, Heinzlef O, Al-Khedr A, Bourre B, Vaillant M, Cabre P, Montcuquet A, Wahab A, Camdessanché JP, Tourbah A, Guennoc AM, Hankiewicz K, Patry I, Nifle C, Maubeuge N, Labeyrie C, Vermersch P, Laplaud DA; OFSEP Investigators.
JAMA Neurol. 2020 Jan 1;77(1):94-102. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.2670.

Comparative effectiveness of teriflunomide vs dimethyl fumarate in multiple sclerosis.
Laplaud DA, Casey R, Barbin L, Debouverie M, De Sèze J, Brassat D, Wiertlewski S, Brochet B, Pelletier J, Vermersch P, Edan G, Lebrun-Frenay C, Clavelou P, Thouvenot E, Camdessanché JP, Tourbah A, Stankoff B, Al Khedr A, Cabre P, Lubetzki C, Papeix C, Berger E, Heinzlef O, Debroucker T, Moreau T, Gout O, Bourre B, Wahab A, Labauge P, Magy L, Defer G, Guennoc AM, Maubeuge N, Labeyrie C, Patry I, Nifle C, Casez O, Michel L, Rollot F, Leray E, Vukusic S, Foucher Y; SFSEP and OFSEP groups.
Neurology. 2019 Aug 13;93(7):e635-e646. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000007938.

Evaluation of treatment response in adults with relapsing MOG-Ab-associated disease.
Cobo-Calvo A, Sepúlveda M, Rollot F, Armangué T, Ruiz A, Maillart E, Papeix C, Audoin B, Zephir H, Biotti D, Ciron J, Durand-Dubief F, Collongues N, Ayrignac X, Labauge P, Thouvenot E, Bourre B, Montcuquet A, Cohen M, Deschamps R, Solà-Valls N, Llufriu S, De Seze J, Blanco Y, Vukusic S, Saiz A, Marignier R.
J Neuroinflammation. 2019 Jul 2;16(1):134. doi: 10.1186/s12974-019-1525-1.

Switching for convenience from first-line injectable treatments to oral treatments in multiple sclerosis: Data from a retrospective cohort study.
Buard G, Giovannelli J, Outteryck O, Hadhoum N, Lannoy J, Vermersch P, Zéphir H.
Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2019 Aug;33:39-43. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2019.05.015.

Frequency and characteristics of short versus longitudinally extensive myelitis in adults with MOG antibodies: A retrospective multicentric study.
Ciron J, Cobo-Calvo A, Audoin B, Bourre B, Brassat D, Cohen M, Collongues N, Deschamps R, Durand-Dubief F, Laplaud D, Maillart E, Papeix C, Zephir H, Bereau M, Brochet B, Carra Dallière C, Derache N, Gagou-Scherer C, Henry C, Kerschen P, Mathey G, Maubeuge N, Maurousset A, Montcuquet A, Moreau T, Prat C, Taithe F, Thouvenot E, Tourbah A, Rollot F, Vukusic S, Marignier R.
Mult Scler. 2020 Jul;26(8):936-944. doi: 10.1177/1352458519849511.

Optical coherence tomography: a window to the optic nerve in clinically isolated syndrome.
London F, Zéphir H, Drumez E, Labreuche J, Hadhoum N, Lannoy J, Hodel J, Vermersch P, Pruvo JP, Leclerc X, Outteryck O.
Brain. 2019 Apr 1;142(4):903-915. doi: 10.1093/brain/awz038.

Benefit-risk Assessment of Cladribine Using Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) for Patients With Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis.
Vermersch P, Martinelli V, Pfleger C, Rieckmann P, Alonso-Magdalena L, Galazka A, Dangond F, Phillips L.
Clin Ther. 2019 Feb;41(2):249-260.e18. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2018.12.015.

OFSEP Group; REEM Group. Correction to: Usefulness of MOG-antibody titres at first episode to predict the future clinical course in adults.
Cobo-Calvo A, Sepúlveda M, d'Indy H, Armangué T, Ruiz A, Maillart E, Papeix C, Audoin B, Zephir H, Biotti D, Ciron J, Durand-Dubief F, Collongues N, Ayrignac X, Labauge P, Thouvenot E, Montcuquet A, Deschamps R, Solà-Valls N, Llufriu S, Blanco Y, de Seze J, Vukusic S, Saiz A, Marignier R.
J Neurol. 2019 Apr;266(4):816. doi: 10.1007/s00415-019-09215-1.

Neurological Involvement in Childhood Evans Syndrome.
Pincez T, Neven B, Le Pointe HD, Varlet P, Fernandes H, Gareton A, Leverger G, Leblanc T, Chambost H, Michel G, Pasquet M, Millot F, Hermine O, Mathian A, Hully M, Zephir H, Hamidou M, Durand JM, Perel Y, Landman-Parker J, Rieux-Laucat F, Aladjidi N.
J Clin Immunol. 2019 Feb;39(2):171-181. doi: 10.1007/s10875-019-0594-3.

Usefulness of MOG-antibody titres at first episode to predict the future clinical course in adults.
Cobo-Calvo A, Sepúlveda M, d'Indy H, Armangué T, Ruiz A, Maillart E, Papeix C, Audoin B, Zephir H, Biotti D, Ciron J, Durand-Dubief F, Collongues N, Ayrignac X, Labauge P, Thouvenot E, Montcuquet A, Deschamps R, Solà-Valls N, Llufriu S, Blanco Y, de Seze J, Vukusic S, Saiz A, Marignier R; OFSEP Group; REEM Group .
J Neurol. 2019 Apr;266(4):806-815. doi: 10.1007/s00415-018-9160-9.



Myelination induction by a histamine H3 receptor antagonist in a mouse model of preterm white matter injury.
Rangon CM, Schang AL, Van Steenwinckel J, Schwendimann L, Lebon S, Fu T, Chen L, Beneton V, Journiac N, Young-Ten P, Bourgeois T, Maze J, Matrot B, Baburamani AA, Supramaniam V, Mallard C, Trottet L, Edwards AD, Hagberg H, Fleiss B, Li J, Chuang TT, Gressens P.
Brain Behav Immun. 2018 Nov;74:265-276. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2018.09.017.

Optic nerve double inversion recovery hypersignal in patients with clinically isolated syndrome is associated with asymptomatic gadolinium-enhanced lesion.
London F, Zéphir H, Hadhoum N, Lannoy J, Vermersch P, Pruvo JP, Hodel J, Leclerc X, Outteryck O.
Mult Scler. 2019 Dec;25(14):1888-1895. doi: 10.1177/1352458518815797.

Evaluation of no evidence of progression or active disease (NEPAD) in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis in the ORATORIO trial.
Wolinsky JS, Montalban X, Hauser SL, Giovannoni G, Vermersch P, Bernasconi C, Deol-Bhullar G, Garren H, Chin P, Belachew S, Kappos L.
Ann Neurol. 2018 Oct;84(4):527-536. doi: 10.1002/ana.25313.

Efficacy of Cladribine Tablets in high disease activity subgroups of patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis: A post hoc analysis of the CLARITY study.
Giovannoni G, Soelberg Sorensen P, Cook S, Rammohan KW, Rieckmann P, Comi G, Dangond F, Hicking C, Vermersch P.
Mult Scler. 2019 May;25(6):819-827. doi: 10.1177/1352458518771875.

OFSEP and NOMADMUS Study Group. Clinical spectrum and prognostic value of CNS MOG autoimmunity in adults: The MOGADOR study.
Cobo-Calvo A, Ruiz A, Maillart E, Audoin B, Zephir H, Bourre B, Ciron J, Collongues N, Brassat D, Cotton F, Papeix C, Durand-Dubief F, Laplaud D, Deschamps R, Cohen M, Biotti D, Ayrignac X, Tilikete C, Thouvenot E, Brochet B, Dulau C, Moreau T, Tourbah A, Lebranchu P, Michel L, Lebrun-Frenay C, Montcuquet A, Mathey G, Debouverie M, Pelletier J, Labauge P, Derache N, Coustans M, Rollot F, De Seze J, Vukusic S, Marignier R;
Neurology. 2018 May 22;90(21):e1858-e1869. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000005560.

Siponimod versus placebo in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (EXPAND): a double-blind, randomised, phase 3 study.
Kappos L, Bar-Or A, Cree BAC, Fox RJ, Giovannoni G, Gold R, Vermersch P, Arnold DL, Arnould S, Scherz T, Wolf C, Wallström E, Dahlke F; EXPAND Clinical Investigators.
Lancet. 2018 Mar 31;391(10127):1263-1273. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30475-6.

Magnetic resonance imaging changes following natalizumab discontinuation in multiple sclerosis patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.
Hodel J, Bapst B, Outteryck O, Verclytte S, Deramecourt V, Benadjaoud MA, Pruvo JP, Vermersch P, Leclerc X.
Mult Scler. 2018 Dec;24(14):1902-1908. doi: 10.1177/1352458517750765.



Thymic-Specific Serine Protease Limits Central Tolerance and Exacerbates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.
Serre L, Girard M, Ramadan A, Menut P, Rouquié N, Lucca LE, Mahiddine K, Leobon B, Mars LT, Guerder S;
J Immunol. 2017 Dec 1;199(11):3748-3756. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1700667.

Dynamic Expression Patterns of Progenitor and Neuron Layer Markers in the Developing Human Dentate Gyrus and Fimbria.
Cipriani S, Journiac N, Nardelli J, Verney C, Delezoide AL, Guimiot F, Gressens P, Adle Biassette H.
Cereb Cortex. 2017 Jan 1;27(1):358-372. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhv223.

Proinflammatory B-cell profile in the early phases of MS predicts an active disease.
Thomas Guerrier, Myriam Labalette, David Launay, Catalina Lee-Chang , Olivier Outteryck , Guillaume Lefèvre, Vermersch P, Dubucquoi S, Zéphir H.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2017 Dec 22;5(2):e431. doi: 10.1212/NXI.0000000000000431.

A comparison of multiple sclerosis disease activity after discontinuation of fingolimod and placebo.
Vermersch P, Radue EW, Putzki N, Ritter S, Merschhemke M, Freedman MS.
 Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin. 2017 Sep 27;3(3):2055217317730096. doi: 10.1177/2055217317730096.

Safety and efficacy of cladribine tablets in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: Results from the randomized extension trial of the CLARITY study.
Giovannoni G, Soelberg Sorensen P, Cook S, Rammohan K, Rieckmann P, Comi G, Dangond F, Adeniji AK, Vermersch P.
Mult Scler. 2018 Oct;24(12):1594-1604. doi: 10.1177/1352458517727603.

Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of benzamide derivatives as potent and selective sigma-1 protein ligands.
Donnier-Maréchal M, Carato P, Larchanché PE, Ravez S, Boulahjar R, Barczyk A, Oxombre B, Vermersch P, Melnyk P.
Eur J Med Chem. 2017 Sep 29;138:964-978. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2017.07.014.

Biomarkers and Response to Natalizumab for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment (BIONAT), Best EScalation Treatment in Multiple Sclerosis (BEST-MS), and the Société Francophone de la Sclérose En Plaques (SFSEP) Network. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 is decreased in natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis patients at risk for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.
Fissolo N, Pignolet B, Matute-Blanch C, Triviño JC, Miró B, Mota M, Perez- Hoyos S, Sanchez A, Vermersch P, Ruet A, de Sèze J, Labauge P, Vukusic S, Papeix C, Almoyna L, Tourbah A, Clavelou P, Moreau T, Pelletier J, Lebrun-Frenay C, Montalban X, Brassat D, Comabella M;
 Ann Neurol. 2017 Aug;82(2):186-195. doi: 10.1002/ana.24987.



Indications de l’autogreffe dans la sclérose en plaques : recommandations de la Société francophone de greffe de moelle et de thérapie cellulaire (SFGM-TC) en lien avec la Société francophone de la sclérose en plaques [Indications and follow-up for autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in multiple sclerosis: Guidelines from the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC) in association with the Francophone Society of Multiple Sclerosis].

Zephir H, Puyade M, Gueguen A, Michel L, Terriou L, Dive D, Laureys G, Mathey G, Labauge P, Marjanovic Z, Pugnet G, Badoglio M, Lansiaux P, Yakoub-Agha I, Béguin Y, Farge D.
Bull Cancer. 2019, Jan;106(1S):S92-S101. French. doi: 10.1016/j.bulcan.2018.11.002.

Knowledge Is Power, but Is Ignorance Bliss? Optimising Conversations About Disease Progression in Multiple Sclerosis.
Vermersch P, Shanahan J, Langdon D, Yeandle D, Alexandri N, Schippling S.
Neurol Ther. 2020 Jun;9(1):1-10. doi: 10.1007/s40120-019-00170-7.

Unmet needs, burden of treatment, and patient engagement in multiple sclerosis: A combined perspective from the MS in the 21st Century Steering Group.
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